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History of India: The First Indians

I am a traveler. I have had the privilege to travel within India and also many other parts of the world. Traveling is very important to us human beings. We inhabit this beautiful planet called Earth that is traveling on its orbit around the Sun at the rate of 108,000 Kilometers/Hour!! Irrespective of whether we like traveling or not we travel millions of kilometers every day of the year.

There is another human journey whose itinerary and scale is becoming clearer day by day. The sequencing of the entire human genome in the late nineties and DNA testing of people from every nook and corner of the world (including India) is revealing a complex journey undertaken by our ancestors that has largely remained a mystery to most of us until now.

Analyzing DNA and comparing DNA is something that has been within the scientific realm for over 50 years. Comparing the data manually is a slow and complicated process. But the growth in computing power in the past few decades has changed all that. Today DNA from a crime scene can be processed and compared to DNA samples available in the database within a few hours.

In 2003 I participated in the “Genographic Project” conducted by National Geographic. The goal of this project is to study human migration and population genetics using our DNA. For a fee the Genographic Project will send you a kit which you can use to send your DNA back to them for analysis (the DNA sample that I submitted was a tiny saliva sample). The results of my test completely took me by surprise.

I am from Kerala and my family can trace back its history in Kerala to at least 125 years ago. But what the DNA results were telling me was that my ancestors most likely migrated to India from modern day Ukraine or Southern Russia within the past 5000 years. I share the same DNA markers with most modern day Europeans (and therefore North Americans).  Genetically I have more in common with an European than I have with my fellow South Indians (over 99% of all human DNA is identical.  The minor differences between us is what scientists are beginning to understand better).

Sequencing human genome and projects like the Genographic Project have ended once and for all the question of the origins of modern human. Modern humans originated in Africa. They lived in Africa for over 200,000 years before they slowly but steadily started migrating out of Africa. They walked along the coasts of Middle East and India and within a matter of 5000 years (of leaving Africa) they reached areas as far as Australia.

The DNA of every single human being on earth can be traced back to DNA of certain human beings living in Africa today (it is also important to note that the genetic diversity between two people in Africa is greater than the diversity between a person in Africa and anywhere else in the world. This is one of the proofs for the fact that human beings lived for a very long period in Africa than outside the continent).

We should understand some basic concepts that are involved in this study. 1) Genetic Markers: Genetic markers are sequences of DNA that is traced to specific locations on the chromosomes and associated with specific traits. 2) Mutations: Mutations are changes in DNA sequence and can be caused by errors that happen during DNA replication, environmental conditions or diseases. 3) Mutation Rate: Scientists know the rate at which mutations take place in a normal human being.  So by analyzing the DNA of a person scientists can predict very accurately the sex of the person, the racial make up of the person, whether two people are related and most importantly for the purpose of this study the age of these markers (by using mutation rate).

For the purpose of this article I will only focus on the important genetic markers that are relevant to India.

Genetic Marker M168: This marker first appeared approximately 79,000 years ago and is found in every human being living outside of Africa including India. The M168 marker mostly likely occurred in modern day Ethiopia or Sudan.

Genetic Marker M130 (M168-M130): Human beings carrying the M130 genetic marker are the first inhabitants of India. They walked along the coast of Africa and on to India, Malaysia and Indonesia and finally ended up in Australia almost 60,000 years ago. Less than 5% of Indian men have this marker (most of them in places like Tamil Nadu and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands). In contrast about 60% of Australian Aborigine men have this genetic marker.

Genetic Marker M20 (M168-M9-M20): The M20 genetic marker is part of the M9 lineage. The M20 was very likely a Middle Eastern marker. The group that carries this marker migrated into India in large numbers (the haplogroup L that has this marker is known as the Indian clan). This migration into India happened approximately 30,000 years ago. This marker is found in large numbers among South Indians who speak the Dravidian languages (Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada). In some South Indian populations the frequency of this marker is as high as 50%.

Genetic Marker M17 (M168-M9-M173-M17): The M17 is one of the most controversial markers as far as India is concerned. We have long known through oral traditions and literature that people from Eastern Europe/Central Asia migrated to India in our not so recent past (the Aryan invasion theory). The M17 marker found among certain Indians (including me) proves once and for all that Europeans did migrate to India. But DNA cannot prove whether these Europeans are indeed the Aryans that we talk about or whether or not these European migrants were the cause of the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization.

As some members of the M9 clan where migrating towards India other members of the group headed north towards Central Asia and Europe. From this group came the M173 marker which is the first large wave of human migration to Europe. Most Europeans (and North Americans) today can trace their DNA back to the M173 marker. For some strange reason some members of the M173 group turned and headed back towards South Asia (may be due to climatic conditions). From this returning group comes the M17 Indo-European marker.

The M17 marker first appears about 15,000 years ago in Southern Russia/Ukraine. The Indo-European languages including Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and now English are closely linked to this group. It is highly likely that the members of this group are the initial Indo-European language speakers. It is estimated that over 35% of Hindi speaking males in India carry this marker (compared to less than 10% among Dravidian language speakers).

The descendants of the first Indians still live in the Andaman islands and places like Tamil Nadu.  People with the M20 marker and the Dravidian languages are also still here (they arrived about 30,000 years ago) and finally the Indo-European speakers (started with Sanskrit a language that has origins in places like Ukraine) and their M17 markers are also present (they arrived less than 5000 years ago).

There are many more markers present in India that shows migration into India and out of India.  The study of human migration and population genetics is a fascinating subject. But this is just the beginning. But at least we now know who we “Indians” really are.

Man is the only creature that refuses to be what he is” – Albert Camus

Related posts:

  1. Promoting and Preventing the Tamil Language From Extinction
  2. Hinduism in India: Originated From Steppes
  3. India’s Greatest Moment in its History is Now
  4. India’s Rich History: Myth vs. Reality
  5. Lord Krishna and Caste System in India

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Category: Culture & Religion

Comments (46)

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  1. Roopam says:

    hi
    you write quite clearly and almost on the topics that needs focus.
    i appreciate deep knowledge in your writing.
    Roopam

    • Hari says:

      Thank you Roopam. I am a teacher and I am also a student.

  2. Ram says:

    More people submit their DNA, larger the database and… more accurate these migration theories. Nice finish to an interesting blog with Albert Camus quote!

    • Hari says:

      Thanks Ram. As more people submit their DNA we will be able to get a better understanding of how the different “castes” in Indian society is set up. I suspect there is a racial element to it with the newer immigrants at the top and the older inhabitants at the bottom.

  3. A wonderfully thorough post!…If you are fair or tall or have sharp features or a combination of any or any one feature, there are chances that you have a Central Europe ancestry. If you are short or dark or have blunt features, you may have an African ancestry.
    Life started in Africa for the human race and evolved according to the ambient environment to which they migrated. Long noses were a feature that allowed the cold air in the temperates to be warmed before it entered the lungs. Survival of the fittest ensured that those with longer noses survived and bred better.
    A comforting fact about dark skin…if temperatures rise to uncomfortable levels due to global warming, you know who will survive!

    • Hari says:

      Thank you Nalini. There is no question that modern humans originated in Africa. All other theories including simultaneous origins in different places have been debunked. The DNA analysis also shows that the Dravidian speakers were in India at least 20,000 years before the Indo-European language speakers. Yet today India is dominated by Indo-European language speakers.

  4. We did a project on M 130 in our community and behavioral medicine class. It was a pleasant surprize to read it here.

    About the domination by Indo-European language speakers over dravidian speakers is a matter of social anthropology. Dravidians remained connected to the environment and the natural resources more than their counter parts. This respectful connection to nature was treated as their backwardness that high and mighty Indo-Euros had to felt their burden to correct and claim their resources.

    Keep it up will visit again.

    Peace,

    Desi Girl

    • Hari says:

      Welcome Desi Girl,

      DNA has truly unlocked some secrets about our past and where we come from. Now we need more details.

  5. yayaver says:

    That was quite well written and lot of scientific facts were there. Migration and travelling is more natural to human than settlement.

    And one more thing, the last quote of your blog posts are great.

    • Hari says:

      Welcome and thank you very much for the compliments yayaver. We are all migrants in foreign lands. I am glad you enjoyed the post.

  6. Bala says:

    Hi,

    Thanks for an wonderful article which cleared many of my doubts. My maternal haplogroup is M37 and paternal is F. 23andme maps my genes as 70% European and 30% Asian. My question is this. Is M37 a mix of M20 and M17 or a differnt one? Does it have any connection with M130 (original Indians)?

    Thanks,
    Bala.

    • Hari says:

      Welcome Bala,

      P37.2 is not from the M130 lineage (keep in mind that a vast amount of DNA is identical). Your sequence seems to be M168-M89-M170-P37.2 (appeared in the Balkans about 15,000 years ago). M20 is a much earlier marker (about 30,000 years) than the P32.7. P37.2 is also not part of the M17 lineage.

      Without divulging personal details can you tell me which part of India you are from and your mother tongue? Thank you.

  7. Bala says:

    Hi Hari,
    Thanks for your answer. I am actually from a village near Erode, Tamilnadu. I speak Tamil. I am also confused about my paternal haplogroup which is F. It looks like a very old one and does not say much about the geographical details. Is ‘F’ very common among south Indians?

    Thanks,
    Bala.

    • Hari says:

      You are welcome Bala. I am from Kerala but I lived in Coimbatore for years. I am very familiar with Erode and have a couple friends from there.

      F has its roots in Central Asia and is considered as one of the founding East Asian lineages (25% of Southeast Asians). The Paragroup F* is found in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

  8. Bala says:

    Hi Hari,

    I am confused about the connection between M37 and P37.2. I could not find any linkage when I google for these two. Is M37 the same as P37.2? And if what you said is true, I am not really a Dravidian or Aryan but may be a Balkan or Roman? That would be interesting.

    Thanks,
    Bala.

    • Hari says:

      Bala,

      Sorry for the confusion between M37 and P37.2.

      If you tested positive for M37 you are defined as R1b1c1. If you want more information search for Haplogroup R (approximately 35,000 years ago). Make sure you check out the Genographic website for updated information. There are correlations between certain genetic markers and languages but we should not make the mistake of using genetic markers and then making the connection to whether that person is an Aryan or a Dravidian. It is a lot more complicated than that.

      • Bala says:

        Hi Hari,

        I think we made another wrong connection about M37 and R1b1c1. M37 is my maternal mtDNA haplogroup whereas R1b1c1 is Y-chromosome haplogroup. Hence both are different.
        Am I right?

        • Hari says:

          Hey Bala,

          The Rutledge DNA project says the following: “If you test positive for the M37 genetic marker you are defined as R1b1c1″.

          • Bala says:

            Correct. But only the paternal M37 is mapped as R1b1c1. Maternal M37 is just M37. I am really surprised why they have to give the same names for both X and Y lineages in this way. Well..they may be a practical difficulty in naming these markers since there is always a chance to discover an age old marker after a not so old one is discoverd. Still, that does not explain the common names between X and Y lineages.

  9. Bala says:

    Hi Hari,

    Thanks for the clarification. But looks like there is no info at all in the web for R1B1C1. They have not fully identified the origins and other details for it. What really surprises me is that I am neither M20 nor M17. M37 has no connection to these two looks like. Well….I will wait and see if anything comes out in the future.

    Thanks,
    Bala.

    • Hari says:

      You are welcome. In some cases it is very difficult to get information on some of these markers. Maybe as more and more people get tested we will have a much more accurate picture about these markers. Can you tell me where you got tested and the cost?

      • Bala says:

        Sure. I got it tested by http://www.23andme.com. They have the complete tests for $499 (ancestry + disease risks). But I got them on sale for $99 + shipping. This was on April 23rd (DNA day).

        • Hari says:

          Thanks Bala.

  10. Bala says:

    Hi,

    After some searches on google, I found out that my paternal group F is nothing but M89. There is another group M69 which came from M89. Both are present in India and you did not cover them here.
    Is there any reason for that?

    Regards,
    Bala.

    • Hari says:

      Thanks for the additional information Bala. As I mentioned in my article the markers that I covered are the key ones relating to India. There are of course many others including F.

  11. senthil says:

    This looks more of a fiction novel, than anything to do with history.. the human genome os so complex, that it is not possible to come to such straight conclusions as you have done in this post..

    Clearly, the entire story is wound around the Aryan Invasion Theory which is already discarded by many.. and you have very much assumed that everything in india came from outside..

    There are so many other dimensions to be considered in the history, but ignoring all those, a purely racial approach has been taken..

    Try to think from indian perspective, rather than assuming whatever the west (or say discovery channel) says is 100% correct..

    The west is always under the assumption that if there is no remains of building in an area, then there is no civilization.. that is a distorted notion..

    To quote an example, there were extensive trading b/w africa and india on those days, and predominantly, b/w Greek and Tamilnadu.. there are large possibilities, that intermingling of people could have taken place b/w different regions.. There is every possibility that people from greek, africa and middle east would have come here and settled.. but to say, that there is no indigenous population or to say, that the whole india comprises only of migrants is something not rational.. you are denying the civilizational aspects native and unique to india..

    Secondly, you say sanskrit is developed in ukraine.. this is yet another bullshit.. bcoz, sanskrit has been evolving over period of history, and various sanskrit schools of grammars had been established.. there are 11 such schools, and panini is the last one who gave final shape to present form of sanskrit..

    India had been the hotbed of civilization and there is all probability, that people all over world would have come here, for a carreer or for a prosperous life.. but what is now propogated by the westerners is the american form of migration.. that migrants persecuted native people, just like european whites persecuted native americans.. Its not a surprise, that they could not think otherwise.. but its a surprise, that those so called Indians living abroad also have given to this thought..

    Come on.. come out of the colonial mindset..

    • Hari says:

      This is not about colonial mindset. It is about facing realities. It is a fact that the ancestors of every human being on earth came from Africa. There is no DNA evidence to suggest that there was an “indigenous Indian population”.

      This is what I said about Sanskrit “The M17 marker first appears about 15,000 years ago in Southern Russia/Ukraine. The Indo-European languages including Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and now English are closely linked to this group“. Did I say Sanskrit is developed in Ukraine?

      DNA technology is not something that is the monopoly of the West. Most Indian experts have come to the same conclusion as well.

      Consider reading “The Journey of Man” by Spencer Wells.

      • senthil says:

        It doesnt become fact or reality, just because you have stated it.. Truth can be only identified by bipartisan debate.. so far, i havent heard any one opposing this “Out of Africa” hypothesis..
        Remember, this is only a hypothesis and NOT fact or truths as stated by you..

        If you carefully see, the entire research by those westerners are based on the christian theology that mankind came from Adam & EVE.. so far, all their researches are centered around this concept.. so based on available skeletons, they came to a premature conclusion, that mankind came from africa..

        So, partly there is darwinion theory , and partly the christian theology, which has influenced them..
        To be precise, they stripped of the “God” from bible, and then took that single man and woman (the adam and eve) for research..

        You see.. the darwinian evolution theory itself is being questioned by many scientist.. the possibility of evolution creating very intelligent designs like human beings are almost nil..

        Also this research on human migration is done under ideal conditions, that humans migrated just in one way direction and that there were no other disturbances..

        But if we look at history, there were extensive trade b/w tamilnadu and greek as far as 1st Century BC.. which gives us a pointer that there were two way population migrations 2000 years before..

        Similarly an extensive trade was done along the entire coast of western india, up to madagaskar.. No one knows from when this trade started.. but the point is africans were already in contact with india, and viceversa..

        NExt, africa did not have any extensive civilization, but much of asia had.. just with limited archeological data we have, we cannot come to any pre-mature conclusion..

        Next, if we look at people groups, the white man’s fair and complexion is entirely different from african blacks.. even among african blacks, different groups have different complexion..

        The chinese body structure is different from european whites.. the red indians have their own complexion..

        its very hard to believe, that they all came from a single man/woman from africa.. Evolution theory do not hold any where here..

        So instead of believing what the white man says, try to have a skeptical and independant outlook..

        And for gods sake, please dont conclude what you are saying are facts and realities.. they are only hypothesis, and i hope, you understand what a hypothesis means..

        • Hari says:

          I think that your dislike of Christianity, West and the “White Man” is clouding your thinking. You should give credit to fellow Indians and millions of others who can look at data, analyze it, use reason and come to logical conclusions without being influenced by Christianity or the “white man”. Anyway, the concept of race is man-made. We are human.

          The findings regarding the origins of modern humans and the human migration story is a body blow to all religions including Christianity. The African origin and migration from Africa is not a “hypothesis” as you are trying to propagate. It is an established fact among the scientific community. But established facts have not prevented people from believing in what they want in the past. It takes years if not centuries to wean some people away from their hard core beliefs.

          Human beings already migrated to parts of South India almost 60,000 years ago. So contact between Tamil Nadu and Greece 2000 years ago and trade between Western coast of India and Madagascar around the same time does not disprove the overall theory.

          Human beings are very good at noticing differences. There are millions of characteristics that are common to all human beings. But we rather focus on the minor differences like hair or skin color. In fact similar differences (height, weight, complexion, body type etc.) exist between siblings. But that does not mean that the parents are different.

          The data that I provided in the article is based on my DNA test results. The tests were conducted by The Genographic Project. This project is led by National Geographic and by IBM. The information that I provided regarding specific Genetic Markers can be found on The Genographic Project website.

          The Genographic Project according to their website “received full approval from the Social and Behavioral Sciences Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pennsylvania Office of Regulatory Affairs on April 12, 2005”. The other major IRB’s are:

          Australia: La Trobe University, Melbourne
          East Asia: Fudan University, Shanghai
          (IRB body: Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai)
          Europe (mtDNA): Institut Paseur, Paris
          Europe (y-DNA): Universitat Pompea Fabra, Barcelona
          India: Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamil Nadu, India
          Middle East: American University of Beirut
          North America: University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
          North Eurasia: Russian Academy Medical Genetics, Moscow
          South America: University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
          (Protocol currently under review by the national ethics committee: C.O.N.E.P. [Comitê de Ética em Pesquisas])
          Sub-Saharan Africa: National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg

          I know what a hypothesis is. It is the concept of “God”!!

  12. senthil says:

    For your attention, i am giving you the disclaimer from the gene map project page..

    You will not receive a percentage breakdown of your genetic background by ethnicity, race, or geographic origin. Nor will you receive confirmation of an association with a particular tribe or ethnic group.

    Furthermore, this is not a genealogy study. You will not learn about your great-grandparents or other recent relatives, and your DNA trail will not necessarily lead to your present-day location. Rather, your results will reveal the anthropological story of your direct maternal or paternal ancestors—where they lived and how they migrated around the world many thousands of years ago.

    A Real-Time Research Project:-
    Remember, your initial results are just the beginning. They are based on current science and may become more detailed and refined as the ongoing field research yields new information. Be sure to visit this Web site often to follow along as we post new findings and automatically update your results.

    So, nothing can be concluded to accurate level.. again, your contention that it is a fact or reality doesnt holds good..

    • Hari says:

      This disclaimer is stating the obvious.

      The Genographic Project is a project about the study of human migration. As the disclaimer states it is not a genealogy study. Genealogy websites generally deal with providing more information about an individual’s ancestry. Individuals normally use these websites to find out more about others who are in the same database who might also be related to them. A genealogy project (website) typically provides a candidate with a percentage breakdown of the DNA by ethnicity or race. The Genographic Project does not.

      The objective of The Genographic Project is in the disclaimer itself: “… your results will reveal the anthropological story of your direct maternal or paternal ancestors—where they lived and how they migrated around the world many thousands of years ago”. I think it is very clear.

      The disclaimer also states that “They are based on current science and may become more detailed and refined as the ongoing field research yields new information”. This should not be surprising either. The data will become more detailed and refined as more people provide their DNA for analysis. This is database 101. This does not mean that the data already published and peer reviewed is inaccurate.

    • Bala says:

      Senthil,

      You have understood these statements in a wrong way. I have done my DNA testing with 23andme.com and they provide exactly what genography project does not provide. Yes, they determine your maternal and paternal haplogroups as well as your disease risks. Genogrpahy project’s aim is not to find out about those. Hence they explicitly state that. You are taking that in a wrong context.

  13. Srinivasan says:

    Since I’m new to this subject, it would be great if you could give a brief explanation on what these markers really are? And why they’re really markers?

    Also, as Senthil says, the data need not be inaccurate.. merely inconclusive. Remember Newton’s laws?

    • Hari says:

      Srinivasan,

      The internet is a great resource to get a basic understanding of what DNA is and what genetic markers are. Definition of a genetic marker from Wikipedia: “A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify cells, individuals or species. It can be described as a variation (which may arise due to mutation or alteration in the genomic loci) that can be observed. A genetic marker may be a short DNA sequence, such as a sequence surrounding a single base-pair change (single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP), or a long one, like mini-satellites“. There is nothing inconclusive about the overall findings.

  14. Vivek says:

    Any comment on this article debunking the Aryan Invasion theory on the basis of genetic studies? -

    http://www.archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/genetics-aryan-debate.html

    • Hari says:

      Vivek,

      Welcome and thank you for commenting. I am familiar with this article. Michel Danino is a French author who supports the “indigenous Aryan” theory. Many proponents of Hindutva and “Indigenous Aryan” theory point to such articles as evidence against the Aryan Invasion Theory (I am not suggesting that you are one of them).

      Aryan and Dravidian are terms found in scripture. There are a lot more to these terms than what science can answer at this point (like are the Aryans the owners of the Indus Valley Civilization or are the Aryans responsible for the downfall of the IVC. An invasion might indicate a war or confrontation of some time which might not be the case. An invasion might suggest large numbers of people. But people with the M17 marker are very few in India compared to the rest of the population).

      I am concerned at this point about human migration and what our DNA can tell us in this regard. Studies clearly indicate that modern human beings originated in Africa. They also indicate that there are many migrations into India from Africa, Middle East and Central Asia at different periods of time. The debate is whether the people with the M17 markers migrated from the Steppes to the rest of the world including India or did the marker originate in India and then migrated to every nook and corner of the world (Indigenous Aryan theory).

      Indians and the supporters of the “Indigenous Aryan” theory blame people like Max Mueller for creating the “Aryan Invasion Theory”. But who proposed the “Indigenous Aryan” theory? There are no references in our history or scripture for this “out of India” theory. In fact many Europeans in the 18th century (like Godfrey Higgins) who loved India and its ancient culture are some of the first people to suggest such concepts!!

      One of the conclusions of Michel is the following: “In fact, several experts, such as Lluís Quintana-Murci,20 Vincent Macaulay,21 Stephen Oppenheimer,22 Michael Petraglia,23 and their associates, have in the last few years proposed that when Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa, he first reached South-West Asia around 75,000 BP, and from here, went on to other parts of the world”. This is an obvious statement considering that human beings were migrating from Africa towards India and Australia along the coast of the Arabian Sea. South West Asia means the Middle East and Arabian Peninsula.

      But then he adds his own interpretation by indicating in the same paragraph that “In simple terms, except for Africans, all humans have ancestors in the North-West of the Indian peninsula”. When did South-West Asia become North-West of the Indian peninsula? Are we Indians that desperate to draw a connection? If this is the case a person in Malaysia can say that human beings first arrived in South West Asia which is the North West of Malaysia. The devil is in the details.

  15. Sarasanki says:

    Hari,

    I would like to do more research into the following news (M20 marker). Too much of killing in Sri Lanka because of the Ariyan mythology Sinhalease have been promoting.

    Can you send me links to reliable sources that can be referenced. Thanks in advance.

    http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=13&artid=33077

    • Hari says:

      Welcome Sarasanki,

      Sorry for the delayed response. I was out for a few days. Go to “The Genographic Project” website that is part of National Geographic. Click on “Genetic Markers”. All the key genetic markers are displayed. Scroll down to M20. There is a map with information about M20.

  16. Sarasanki says:

    Hari,

    Thanks for the links.In the National Geographic website, there are two migration trajectories leading to Southern India. One is M20 and the other is M52. Q1.) What is the relationship between M20 and M52. Q2.) Which of the trajectory leads into present Sri Lanka? The website does not give any option to zoom into Sri Lanka. My goal is to accumulate facts that will help determine the migration of Sinhalese vs. Tamil in Sri Lanka.

    • Hari says:

      People with M20 markers arrived in India about 30,000 years ago. They were part of the M9 haplogroup but migrated south once they reached the mountainous region in Pamir Knot (near Afghanistan). Other members of this M9 group headed north towards the Steppes. Some members of the M9 group that headed north towards the Steppes later migrated back in to India about 20,000 years later. My ancestors are one of them (M168-M9-M173-M17).

      People with M52 marker arrived in India about 25,000 years ago. The M52 marker is related to the older M69 marker which is from the Middle East.

      I have not read a lot about the markers present in Sri Lanka. I know that the Sinhalese language is Indo-European so that might indicate some presence of the Indo-European marker (M17). I am not sure what percentage of the Sri Lankan population has this marker (I have read somewhere that it is only about 10%).

      There is an article called “The Genetics of Language and Farming Spread in India”. In Table 17.2 there is some information on the Y-Chromosomal haplogroup frequencies in India and Sri Lanka.

  17. Shiva says:

    just wait for few more years and there will be a new fact overriding all the old facts..these days, People are so sure of thier facts, that we should demand that “fact need to have facts to prove they are infact a fact”.

    • Hari says:

      I have a feeling that DNA is here to stay for a long time and the overall theory of human migration from Africa is unlikely to change. But I am not sure why the theory of “facts overriding all the old facts” never applies to religious beliefs of believers!

      • Shiva says:

        haha the feeling of certainity, ..have u read about the article of fossilised man in israel 400,000 years old…Science even 25-50 years old get outdated by new discoveries..so dont be so sure. Science is only very precise about the known knoweldge and there is more unknown than the known..so teacher, humility please.

        • Hari says:

          I am not sure how some “fossilized man in Israel” is relevant to this discussion. Science has made errors in the past. That is not a secret. None of us are married to this theory or believe that DNA is god. What this study and many subsequent studies and analysis have shown is that all modern human beings can trace their origins back to Africa. I will believe in this theory until I see evidence to the contrary.

          You want me to be humble but then seem to be “certain” when you state that “Science is only very precise about the known knoweldge and there is more unknown than the known“. How do you know this? Do you have a sixth sense or are you basing it on scientific facts?

  18. arjen says:

    lmaoo..THE M17 HAS BEEN PROVENN PROVEEN TO BE OLDER IN INDIA…….

    so against your racist nazi theoryy

    • Hari says:

      Obviously you did not read the article. If you had you would know that this is not my “racist nazi theory”. It is what the DNA in our body says!

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